International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)

ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJIGSP Vol.5, No.5, Apr. 2013

An Improved Watermarking Scheme for Tiny Tamper Detection of Color Images

Full Text (PDF, 1288KB), PP.1-14

Views:133   Downloads:1


Nader H. H. Aldeeb,Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

Index Terms

Color Image Watermarking, Content Authentication, Forgery Detection, Reversible, Fragile


In many applications, images are sensitive to an extent such that any modification in it could lead to serious problems. For example, hiding any portion of a medical image could lead to a misdiagnosis. Thus, detecting forgery in images is a mandatory as well as being a legal and ethical duty. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new Content Authentication (CA) watermarking scheme, which aims at detecting any modification, forgery, or illegal manipulation of images even if it is small. Our proposed scheme is a fragile, secure, and a reversible watermarking scheme. It generates the watermark uniquely using a messy model. The generated watermark is embedded accumulatively; to obtain spreading over the whole image area, and embedded homogeneously; to obtain a high quality watermarked image. Our proposed scheme is a development of a recently proposed watermarking scheme. Our proposed scheme surpassed its counterpart in terms of capacity, quality, watermark spreading, fragility, and embedding time. The payload of the host image increased from 81.71 % to 93.82 %. The minimum obtained PSNR value increased from 27.15 dB to 31.76 dB. The watermark spreading percentage, or the percentage of the protected pixels, is noticeably increased. Our proposed scheme is very sensitive to modifications anywhere in the image even if it is tiny. Finally, our proposed CA scheme has a faster embedding time than that of its counterpart. We obtained an average reduction in time equals 0.15 second.

Cite This Paper

Nader H. H. Aldeeb,Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba,"An Improved Watermarking Scheme for Tiny Tamper Detection of Color Images", IJIGSP, vol.5, no.5, pp.1-14, 2013.DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2013.05.01


[1]L. Fan, T. Gao, Q. Yang and Y. Cao, "A copyright-protection watermark mechanism based on generalized brain-state-in-a-box neural network and error diffusion halftoning," IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, (ICME), China, 2011, pp. 1-6.

[2]C. Xiaoling, and Z. Huimin "A Novel Video Content Authentication Algorithm Combined Semi-fragile Watermarking with Compressive Sensing," 2nd Int. Conf. on Intelligent System Design and Engineering Application, (ISDEA), 2012, pp. 134-137.

[3]Y. Hu, H. Lee, and H. Zeng, "Curve Watermarking Technique for Fingerprinting Digital Maps," 8th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, (IIHMSP), 2008, pp. 223-226. 

[4]A. Giakoumaki, K. Perakis, A. Tagaris, D. Koutsouris, "Digital Watermarking in Telemedicine Applications - Towards Enhanced Data Security and Accessibility," Proc. of the 28th IEEE Annual Int. Conf. on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, (EMBS), New York City, USA, 2006, pp. 6328 – 6331.

[5]M. Prasad and Sh. Koliwad "A Comprehensive Survey of Contemporary Researches in Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Digital Images," International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 91-107, Apr. 2009.

[6]F. H. Wang, J. S. Pan, and L. C. Jain, "Digital Watermarking Techniques," in Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag,2009, pp. 11-26.

[7]B. Harjito, S. Han, V. Potdar, E. Chang, M. Xie, "Secure Communication in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks using Watermarking," 4th IEEE Int. Conf. on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies, (DEST), 2010, pp. 640-645.

[8]E. Bollain-y-Goytia, M. Nakano-Miyatake and H. Pérez-Meana, "Authentication of Identification Card Using Watermarking," 48th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2005, pp. 1422 - 1425. 

[9]S. Poonkuntran and R. S. Rajesh, "A Messy Watermarking for Medical Image Authentication," in Proc. of 2011 Int. Conf. Communications and Signal Processing, Kerala, pp. 418-422.

[10]S. Mohanty, "Digital Watermarking: A Tutorial Review ," Master Project Report, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, India, Institute of Science, DANGALORE, India, 1999.

[11]M. Jiansheng, L. Sukang, and T. Xiaomei, "A Digital Watermarking Algorithm Based On DCT and DWT," Proc. of the Int. Symposium on Web Information Systems and Applications, (WISA'09), Nanchang, P. R. China, 2009, pp. 104-107.

[12]A. Zeki and A. Manaf, "A novel digital watermarking technique based on ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 50. 2009, pp. 989-996.

[13]Y. Hua, B. Wu, and G. Wu, "A color image fragile watermarking algorithm based on DWT-DCT," in Proc. 2010 Chinese Control and Decision Conf., (CCDC), Xuzhou, 2010, pp. 2840-2845.

[14]S. C. Liew and J. M. Zain, "Reversible Medical Image Watermarking For Tamper Detection And Recovery," in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Science and Information Technology, (ICCSIT),Chengdu, 2010, pp. 417-420.

[15]J. Tian, "Reversible Watermarking Using a Difference Expansion," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. for Video Technology Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890-896, 2003.

[16]R. Ni, Q. Ruan, and Y. Zhao, "Pinpoint authentication watermarking based on a chaotic system," Forensic Science International Journal, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 54-62, 2008.

[17]Jia Li and James Z. Wang, "Real-time Computerized Annotation of Pictures," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 985-1002, 2008.

[18], James Z. Wang Research Group, Accessed 5 Jan 2013.

[19], online image library, Accessed 5 Jan 2013.

[20]Mrdjenovic and Ljiljana "Digital watermarking in the generalized discrete cosine transform domain," M.S. thesis, Dept. Comput. Sci., York University, Toronto, Ontario, Jan. 2010.