International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA)

ISSN: 2074-904X (Print), ISSN: 2074-9058 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJISA Vol.10, No.11, Nov. 2018

A New Robust and Imperceptible Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Hybrid Transform and PSO

Full Text (PDF, 950KB), PP.50-63

Views:158   Downloads:20


Tamirat Tagesse Takore, P. Rajesh Kumar, G. Lavanya Devi

Index Terms

Lifting wavelet transform;discrete cosine transform;singular value decomposition;edge detection;particle swarm optimization


In this paper, a new robust and imperceptible digital image watermarking scheme that can overcome the limitation of traditional wavelet-based image watermarking schemes is proposed using hybrid transforms viz. Lifting wavelet transform (LWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). The scheme uses canny edge detector to select blocks with higher edge pixels.  Two reference sub-images, which are used as the point of reference for watermark embedding and extraction, have been formed from selected blocks based on the number of edges. To achieve a better trade-off between imperceptibility and robustness, multiple scaling factors (MSF) have been employed to modulate different ranges of singular value coefficients during watermark embedding process. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been adopted to obtain optimized MSF. The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed under different conditions and the experimental results, which are obtained from computer simulation, verifies that the proposed scheme achieves enhanced robustness against various attacks performed. Moreover, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the other existing schemes and the results of comparison confirm that our proposed scheme outperforms previous existing schemes in terms of robustness and imperceptibility.

Cite This Paper

Tamirat Tagesse Takore, P. Rajesh Kumar, G. Lavanya Devi, "A New Robust and Imperceptible Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Hybrid Transform and PSO", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.10, No.11, pp.50-63, 2018. DOI: 10.5815/ijisa.2018.11.06


[1]G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, “Watermarking digital image and video data. A state-of-the-art overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 20–46, 2000.

[2]C.-H. Chou and K.-C. Liu, “Robust and transparent watermarking scheme for colour images,” IET Image Process., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 228–242, Aug. 2009.

[3]S. Bajracharya, R. Koju,"An Improved DWT-SVD Based Robust Digital Image Watermarking for Color Image", International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing (IJEM), Vol.7, No.1, pp.49-59, 2017.

[4]N. M. Makbol and B. E. Khoo, “Robust blind image watermarking scheme based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition,” AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 102–112, 2013.

[5]A. Dixit, R Dixit, "A Review on Digital Image Watermarking Techniques", International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP), Vol.9, No.4, pp.56-66, 2017. 

[6]V. S. Verma and R. K. Jha, “LWT–DSR based new robust framework for watermark extraction under intentional attack conditions,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 354, no. 14, pp. 6422–6449, 2017.

[7]Y. Wang, X. Bai, and S. Yan, “Digital image watermarking based on texture block and edge detection in the discrete wavelet domain,” In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Sensor Network Security Technology and Privacy Communication System, 2013.

[8]B. E. Khoo, N. M. Makbol, and T. H. Rassem, “Block-based discrete wavelet transform-singular value decomposition image watermarking scheme using human visual system characteristics,” IET Image Process., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 34–52, Jan. 2016.

[9]G. Çetinel, L. Çerkezi,"Robust Chaotic Digital Image Watermarking Scheme based on RDWT and SVD", International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing (IJIGSP), Vol.8, No.8, pp.58-67, 2016.

[10]R.-S. Run, S.-J. Horng, J.-L. Lai, T.-W. Kao, and R.-J. Chen, “An improved SVD-based watermarking technique for copyright protection,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 673–689, Jan. 2012.

[11]W. Yongdong, “On the security of an SVD-based ownership watermarking,” IEEE Trans. Multimed., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 624–627, Aug. 2005.

[12]R. Liu and T. Tan, “An SVD-based watermarking scheme for protecting rightful ownership,” IEEE Trans. Multimed., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 121–128, 2002.

[13]S. Fazli and M. Moeini, “A robust image watermarking method based on DWT, DCT, and SVD using a new technique for correction of main geometric attacks,” Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 964–972, 2016.

[14]I. A. Ansari, M. Pant, and C. W. Ahn, “Robust and false positive free watermarking in IWT domain using SVD and ABC,” Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, vol. 49, pp. 114–125, 2016.

[15]K. Ramanjaneyulu and K. Rajarajeswari, “Wavelet-based oblivious image watermarking scheme using genetic algorithm”  IET Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 364, 2012.  

[16]T. T. Takore, P. R. Kumar, and G. L. Devi, “Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using Population-Based Stochastic Optimization Technique,” International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 55–65, Aug. 2017.

[17]W. Sweldens, "The lifting scheme: A construction of second generation wavelets." SIAM journal on mathematical analysis, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 511-546, 1998.

[18]N. M. Makbol and B. E. Khoo, “A new robust and secure digital image watermarking scheme based on the integer wavelet transform and singular value decomposition,” Digit. Signal Process., vol. 33, pp. 134–147, Oct. 2014.  

[19]J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Piscataway, NJ.vol. 4, pp. 1942–1948.1995.

[20]V. S. Verma, R. K. Jha, and A. Ojha, “Significant region based robust watermarking scheme in lifting wavelet transform domain,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 42, no. 21, pp. 8184–8197, 2015.