International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA)

ISSN: 2074-904X (Print), ISSN: 2074-9058 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJISA Vol.6, No.11, Oct. 2014

The Effects of Beta-I and Fractal Dimension Neurofeedback on Reaction Time

Full Text (PDF, 809KB), PP.42-48

Views:178   Downloads:0


Reza Yaghoobi Karimoi, Azra Yaghoobi Karimoi

Index Terms

Neurofeedback, Reaction Time, Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), Electroencephalogram, Relative Beta-I Power, and Fractal Dimension


In this paper, we evaluate the effects of neurofeedback training protocols of the relative power of the beta-I band and the fractal dimension on the reaction time of human by the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) to show which of these two protocols have the great ability for the improving of the reaction time. The findings of this research show that both protocols have a good ability (p < 0.01) to improving of the reaction time and can create the significant difference (as mean dRT = 37.3 ms for the beta-I protocol and dRT = 19.6 ms for the fractal protocol) in the reaction time. Of course, we must express, the Beta-I protocol has the more ability to improving of the reaction time and it is able to provide a faster reaction time.

Cite This Paper

Reza Yaghoobi Karimoi, Azra Yaghoobi Karimoi,"The Effects of Beta-I and Fractal Dimension Neurofeedback on Reaction Time", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), vol.6, no.11, pp.42-48, 2014. DOI: 10.5815/ijisa.2014.11.06


[1]Wang L, Kakigi R and et al. Neural activities during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test MEG observation. Cognitive Brain Research. 2001. 12(1): 19-31.

[2]Missonnier P, Hasler R and et al. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task. Neuroscience. 241(0): 135-146.

[3]Gooch D, Snowling M J and et al. Reaction Time Variability in Children with ADHD Symptoms and/or Dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology. 2012. 37(5): 453-472.

[4]Antonini T N, Narad ME and et al. Behavioral correlates of reaction time variability in children with and without ADHD. Neuropsychology. 2013. 27(2): 201-209.

[5]Stuss D T, Stethem L L and et al. Reaction time after head injury: fatigue, divided and focused attention, and consistency of performance. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 1989. 52(6): 742-748.

[6]Donoghue O A, Horgan N F and et al. Association Between Timed Up-and-Go and Memory, Executive Function, and Processing Speed. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012. 60(9): 1681-1686.

[7]Cho B H, Kim S and et al. Neurofeedback training with virtual reality for inattention and impulsiveness. Cyberpsychology & behavior : the impact of the Internet, multimedia and virtual reality on behavior and society. 2004. 7(5): 519-526.

[8]Egner T and Gruzelier J H. EEG Biofeedback of low beta band components: frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2004. 115(1): 131-139.

[9]Berger I and Cassuto H. The effect of environmental distractors incorporation into a CPT on sustained attention and ADHD diagnosis among adolescents. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2014. 222(0): 62-68.

[10]Fan J, McCandliss B D and et al, Testing the Efficiency and Independence of Attentional Networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2002. 14(3): 340-347.

[11]Jeffrey W M, Lawrence MA and et al. Appraising the ANT: Psychometric and theoretical considerations of the Attention Network Test. Neuropsychology. 2011. 24(5): 637-651.

[12]Arcurio L R, Finn P R and et al. Neural mechanisms of high-risk decisions-to-drink in alcohol-dependent women. Addiction Biology: 2013. 1-17.

[13]Dalley J W, Everitt B J and et al. Impulsivity, Compulsivity, and Top-Down Cognitive Control. Neuron. 2011. 69(4): 680-694. 

[14]Iuculano T, Lee M R and et al. Brain Organization Underlying Superior Mathematical Abilities in Children with Autism. Biological Psychiatry. 2014. 75(3): 223-230.

[15]Wang J R. and Hsieh S. Neurofeedback training improves attention and working memory performance. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2013. 124(12): 2406-2420.

[16]Escolano C, Aguilar M and et al. EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory performance. in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2011. 2327 – 2330.

[17]Rüter J, Sprekeler H end et al. The silent period of evidence integration in fast decision making. PloS one. 2013. 8(1): e46525.

[18]Nieuwenhuis S and Kleijn R. The impact of alertness on cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2013. 39(6): p. 1797-1801.

[19]Steiner N J, Frenetteet E C and al. Neurofeedback and Cognitive Attention Training for Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Schools. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 2014. 35(1): 18-27.

[20]Gupta M M, Jin L and et al. In Static and Dynamic Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

[21]Jasinska A J, Steina E A and et al. Factors modulating neural reactivity to drug cues in addiction: A survey of human neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2014. 38(0): 1-16.

[22]Ogrim G, Kropotov J and et al. The quantitative EEG theta/beta ratio in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and normal controls: Sensitivity, specificity, and behavioral correlates. Psychiatry research. 2012. 198(3): 482-488.

[23]Woltering S, Jung J and et al. Resting state EEG oscillatory power differences in ADHD college students and their peers. Behavioral and brain functions : BBF, 2012. 8: 1-9.

[24]Yener G G and Basar E. Brain oscillations as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders: following an interactive panel discussion and synopsis. Supplements to Clinical neurophysiology. 2012. 62: 343-363.

[27]Wang Q, Sourina O and et al. Fractal dimension based neurofeedback in serious games. The Visual Computer. 2011. 27(4): 299-309.

[28]Van Der Laan L, Van Spaendonck K and et al. The Symptom Checklist-90 Revised Questionnaire: No Psychological Profiles in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Dystonia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 1999. 17(5): 357-362.

[29]Derogatis L R. SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist-90-R : Administration, Scoring, and Procedures Manual. NCS Pearson. 1996.

[30]Higuchi T. Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of the fractal theory. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. 1988. 31(2): 277-283.

[31]Robert A L, Greenberg L. M. and et al. T.O.V.A.® Professional Manual: Test Of Variables of Attention Continuous Performance Test. 2007: 1-108.

[32]Forbes G B. Clinical utility of the test of variables of attention (TOVA) in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1998. 54(4): 461-476.

[33]Bashashati A, et al. Fractal dimension-based EEG biofeedback system. in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2003. 3: 2220 – 2223. 

[34]Bakhshayesh A, Hänsch S and et al. Neurofeedback in ADHD: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011. 20(9): 481-491..