International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA)

ISSN: 2074-904X (Print), ISSN: 2074-9058 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJISA Vol.8, No.10, Oct. 2016

Research on Variable Transmission Ratio and Yaw Rate Control Strategy of Electric Forklift Steering-by-Wire System

Full Text (PDF, 1220KB), PP.21-30

Views:205   Downloads:7


Guohua Xiang, Benxian Xiao

Index Terms

Electric forklift;SBW;Variable transmis-sion ratio;Yaw rate feedback;Fuzzy control


Combined with the transmission ratio charac-teristics of forklift steering-by-wire (SBW) system, through the application of fuzzy control technology, the variable transmission ratio function is designed based on the steering handle angle and vehicle speed, and simula-tion analysis of sinusoidal steering is done at low-speed and high-speed. Simulation results show that the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control can make forklift steering light & sensitive at low-speed and steering steady & heavy at high speed, also it can improve the operation stability and reduce the driver's load. Discuss the relationship between yaw rate and forklift handling stability, propose the yaw rate feedback control strategy based on the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control, and design a fuzzy self-adaptive PID controller. Simula-tion results show that the SBW system based on the fuzzy variable transmission ratio control with yaw rate feedback can accurately and quickly track the desired yaw rate, and reduce or even eliminate the overshoot phenomenon, improve the forklift dynamic performance.

Cite This Paper

Guohua Xiang, Benxian Xiao,"Research on Variable Transmission Ratio and Yaw Rate Control Strategy of Electric Forklift Steering-by-Wire System", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.8, No.10, pp.21-30, 2016. DOI: 10.5815/ijisa.2016.10.03


[1]Avinash Balachandran, J.Christian Gerdes , “Designing Steering Feel for Steer-by-Wire Vehicles Using Objective Measures”, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol.20, No.1, pp. 373-383 ,2015.

[2]Cristian Chitu, Jochen Lackner, Martin Horn, et al. “Con-troller design for an electric power steering system based on LQR techniques”, The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 763-775,2013.

[3]C. Dannöhl, S.Müller, H.Ulbrich, “H∞-control of a rack-assisted electric power steering system”, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 527-544, 2012.

[4]Farbod Fahimi. “Full drive-by-wire dynamic control for four-wheel-steer all-wheel drive vehicles”. Vehicle System Dynamics, 51(3): 360-376, 2013.

[5]M. Halton, M. J. Hayes, P. Iordanov, “State-space μ analysis for an experimental drive-by-wire vehicle”. In-ternational Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, 18(9): 975-992, 2008.

[6]Hai Wang, Zhihong Man, Weixiang Shen, et al, “Robust control for Steer-by-Wire systems with partially known dynamics,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 2003-2015,2014.

[7]Y. Marumo and M. Nagai, “Steering control of motorcy-cles using steer-by-wire system,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 445–458, 2007.

[8]Y. Marumo and N. Katagiri, “Control effects of steer-by-wire system for motorcycles on lane-keeping performance,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 49,no. 8, pp. 1283–1298, 2011.

[9]Y. Yamaguchi and T. Murakami, “Adaptive control for virtual steering characteristics on electric vehicle using Steer-by-Wire system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1585–1594, May 2009.

[10]K. Nam, H. Fujimoto, and Y. Hori, “Lateral stability control of in-wheel-motor- driven electric vehicles based on sideslip angle estimation using lateral tire force sensors,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1972–1985, Jun. 2012.

[11]A. E. Cetin, M. A. Adli, and D. E. Barkana, “Implemen-tation and development of an adaptive steering-control system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 75–83, Jan. 2010.

[12]H. Wang, Z. Man, H. Kong, and W. Shen, “Terminal sliding mode control for Steer-by-Wire system in electric vehicles,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. (ICIEA), pp. 919–924., 2012.

[13]Yousuke Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Murakami. “Adaptive Control for Virtual Steering Characteristics on Electric Vehicle Using Steer-by-Wire System”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 1585-1594, 2009.

[14]Balachandran A, Gerdes J C. Designing Steering Feel for Steer-by-Wire Vehicles Using Objective Measures [J]. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 20(1):373-383., 2015.

[15]M. Segawa, S. Kimura, T. Kada, and S. Nakano, “A study of reactive torque control for steer by wire system,” in Proc. Int. Symp. AVEC, pp. 653–657, 2002.

[16]P. Yih and J. C. Gerdes, “Modification of vehicle handling characteristics via steer-by-wire,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 965–976, Nov. 2005.

[17]Hongliang Zhou, Zhiyuan Liu, “Vehicle Yaw Stabil-ity-Control System Design Based on Sliding Mode and Backstepping Control Approach”. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 7, pp. 3674-3678, 2010.

[18]Gerry Howser, Bruce McMillin, “Modeling and reasoning about the security of drive-by-wire automobile systems”. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 5(3-4): 127-134, 2012.

[19]Jin Hur, “Characteristic analysis of interior perma-nent-magnet synchronous motor in electrohydraulic power steering systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, No. 6, pp. 2316-2323 ,2008

[20]Alaa Marouf, Mohamed Djemai, Chouki Sentouch, Philippe Pudlo. “A New Control Strategy of an Elec-tric-Power-Assisted Steering System”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 61, No. 8, pp. 3574-3589 ,2012.

[21]Manh Tuan Do, Zhihong Man, Cishen Zhang, et al, “Ro-bust sliding mode-based learning control for Steer-by-Wire systems in modern vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 580-590,2014.

[22]Masaya Segawa, Shiro Nakano, Osamu Nishihara, Hiromitsu Kumamoto. “Vehicle stability control strategy for steer by wire system”. JSAE Review, 22(9):383-388, 2001.

[23]Pradeep Setlur, John R. Wagner, Darren M. Dawson, David Braganza. “A Trajectory Tracking Steer-by-Wire Control System for Ground Vehicles”. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol.55, No.1, pp. 76-85, 2006.

[24]P. Lemerle, O. Höppner, J. Rebelle. “Dynamic stability of forklift trucks in cornering situations: parametrical analysis using a driving simulator”. Vehicle System Dynamics, 4910, 2011.

[25]Qun Zeng, “The design of power assisted characteristic curve for electric power steering system”, Journal of Convergence Information Technology, Vol. 7, No. 17, pp. 260-266,2012.

[26]Mirko Rinchi, Luca Pugi, Fabio Bartolini, and Luigi Gozzi, “Design of control system to prevent forklift capsize”, International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modeling and Testing, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 35-58,2010.

[27]Tao Yang. “A New Control Framework of Electric Power Steering System Based on Admittance Control”. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 762-769, 2015.

[28]Tao Meng, Hui Chen, “A Study on the Control Strategy for Wheel Return and Active Damping of Electric Power Steering System”, Automotive Engineering, Vol.28, No.12, pp. 1125-1128, 2006.

[29]Xu Xiang, Song Wenbin, “A Discussion on the Applica-tion of EPS on Electric Forklift”, Journal of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 11, pp. 33-35,64,2010.

[30]Xiang Chen, Tiebao Yang, Xiaoqun Chen, Kemin Zhou, “A generic model-based advanced control of  electric power-assisted steering systems”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 1289-1300,2008.

[31]Yan He, Benxian Xiao. “Research on Power Characteristic of the Electric Forklift EPS System”. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 1768-1785, 2015.

[32]Zineb LAOUICI, Mohammed Amine MAMI, Mohamed Fayçal KHELFI. “Hybrid Method for the Navigation of Mobile Robot Using Fuzzy Logic and Spiking Neural Networks” International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp.1-9,2014.