International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA)

ISSN: 2074-904X (Print), ISSN: 2074-9058 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJISA Vol.8, No.7, Jul. 2016

Steganographic Data Hiding using Modified APSO

Full Text (PDF, 546KB), PP.37-45

Views:155   Downloads:4


E Divya, P Raj Kumar

Index Terms

Chi-Square Test;Histogram error;LSB;PSO;APSO;PSNR.;MSE;SSIM


In this paper we are analyzing the steganographic data hiding using the least significant bit technique. This paper describes the particle swarm optimisation. The particle swarm optimisation algorithm is applied to the spatial domain technique. The improved algorithm called the accelerated particle swarm optimisation converges faster than the usual particle swarm optimisation and improves the performance. This paper also analyses the modified particle swarm optimisation on the spatial domain technique which improved the PSNR and also reduced the computation time.

Cite This Paper

E Divya, P Raj Kumar,"Steganographic Data Hiding using Modified APSO", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.8, No.7, pp.37-45, 2016. DOI: 10.5815/ijisa.2016.07.04


[1]A. P. Fabien, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn. Information hiding–a survey. Proceedings of IEEE Special Issue on Protection of Multimedia Content, 87 (1999)7, 1062–1078.

[2]Ingemar J. Cox et al., Digital Watermarking and Steganography, Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington, USA, 2008.

[3]C. Cachin, “An information-theoretic model for steganography,” Proc.2nd International Workshop Information Hiding LNCS 1525, pp. 306–318, 1998.

[4]Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, Nasir Memon, “Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice”, WPSC/Lecture Note Series, pp.3, April, 2004. Source:

[5]Chandramouli, R., M. Kharrazi, and N. Memon, Image Steganography and Steganalysis: Concepts and Practice 

[6]J. Kennedy and R.C. Eberhart, Particle Swarm Optimization, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, IEEE Service Centre, Piscataway, nJ, vol. 5, no. 3. pp. 1942-1948, 1995.

[7]X.Li, J.Wang, A Steganographic method based upon JPEG and Particle Swarm Optimization, Information Sciences 177 (2007) 3099-3109.

[8]Rajkumar P, R.Kar, A.K.Bhattacharjee, Dharmasa,”A Comparative analysis of Steganographic Data Hiding within digital images”, International Journal of Computer Applications, September 2012.

[9]Bedi.P, et al., Using PSO in Image Hiding Scheme Based on LSB Substitution. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg A braham. A et al. (Eds.): ACC 2011, Part III, CCIS 192, pp 259-268, 2011.

[10]Bajaj.R et al., Best Hiding Capacity Scheme for Variable Length Messages Using Particle Swarm Optimization. SEMCCO 2010, LNCS 6466, pp 230-237, Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

[11]Braik. M et al., Image Enhancement Using Particle Swarm Optimization. Proceedings of the World congress on engineering 2007 Vol 1 WCE, 2007, July 2-4, 2007, London, U.K.

[12]Fazli, S, Kiamini, M, A High Performance Steganographic Method using JPEG and PSO algorithm, In: IEEE International Multitopic December 24, 2008.

[13]Zhou Wang, Alan C. Bovik, Hamid R. Sheikh, and Eero P. Simoncelli, “Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

[14]Yanqing .G, Xiangwei.K, Xingang.Y., Secure Steganography based on Binary Particle Swarm Optimization, September 4, 2008 Journal of Electronics China 

[15]J. Zollner, H. Federrath, H. Klimant, A. Pitzman, R. Piotraschke, A.Westfeld, G. Wicke, and G. Wolf, “Modeling the security of steganographic systems," 2nd Information Hiding Workshop, pp. 345-355, April 1998.

[16]Wu, M.-N., M.-H. Lin, and C.-C. Chang, A LSB Substitution Oriented Image Hiding Strategy Using Genetic Algorithms Content Computing, 2004, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. p. 219-229. 

[17]Mathkour, H., B. Al-Sadoon, and A. Touir A New Image Steganography Technique, in IEEE. 2008. p. 1-4. 

[18]Digital Watermarking, T. Kalker, I. Cox, and Y. Ro, Editors. 2004, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. p. 204-211. 

[19]Wang, R.-Z., C.-F. Lin, and J.-C. Lin, Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm. Pattern Recognition, 2001: p. 671- 683. 

[20]Zanganeh, O. and S. Ibrahim, Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Optimal Embedding and Robust Against Chi-square Attack. Information Technology Journal, 2011. 10: p. 1285-1294. 

[21]Walia, E., P. Jain, and N. Navdeep, An Analysis of LSB & DCT based Steganography. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 2010. 10: p. 4-8. 

[22]Chan, Y.-K., Y.-A. Ho, and Y.-P. Chu, Image Hiding with an Improved Genetic Algorithm and an Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process, in IEEE. 2008. p. 320-325. 

[23]Bajaj, R., P. Bedi, and S. Pal, Best Hiding Capacity Scheme for Variable Length Messages Using Particle Swarm Optimization Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing,.2010, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. p. 230-237. 

[24]Westfeld, A. and A. Pfitzmann, Attacks on Steganographic Systems - Breaking the Steganographic Utilities EzStego in Citeseer. 2000. p. 1-4. 

[25]H. Wang, et al., “Opposition-based particle swarm algorithm with Cauchy mutation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2007, pp. 4750-4756.

[26]Ratnakirti Roy, Suvamoy Changder1, Anirban Sarkar1, NarayanC Debnath, “Evaluating Image Steganography Techniques: Future Research Challenges” IEEE transactions 2013

[27]Emad Elbeltagi, Tarek Hegazy, Donald Grierson, “Comparison among five evolutionary-based optimization 43–53.

[28]N. Lavanya, V.Manjula, N.V. Krishna Rao, Robust and Secure Data Hiding in Image Using Biometric Technique, (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 3 (5) , 2012,5133 – 51.

[29]K.Prajna,et,al, “A New Dual Channel Speech Enhancement Approach Based on Accelerated Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO)” ,I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 2014, 04, 1-10 Published Online March 2014 in MECS.

[30]E Divya and P Rajkumar titled “Image to Image Hiding Using PSO” in IJIRAE, Issue 2, vol 5, May 2015.

[31]E Divya and P Rajkumar titled “Steganographic Data Hiding in DWT Using PSO” in IJCA, vol 117, number 14, pp 30-34, May 2015.