International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT)

ISSN: 2076-1449 (Print), ISSN: 2076-9539 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJWMT Vol.11, No.5, Oct. 2021

Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communication – A Tutorial on Spread Spectrum Technology

Full Text (PDF, 403KB), PP.26-34

Views:2   Downloads:0


Cosmas Kemdirim Agubor, Akinyinka Olukunle Akande, Reginald Opara

Index Terms

Bandwidth; CDMA; code; pseudo-noise; spread spectrum.


This paper focuses on Spread Spectrum technique and its interference mitigation feature as applied in wireless communication. With spread spectrum technology it is possible to implement the transmission of multiple signals over wider ranges of spectrum without resulting to interference from other signals transmitted over the same frequencies. It does this by rejecting any received signal that does not carry the proper code. Interference rejection, one of the several features of spread spectrum technology is a difficult concept to understand. It is therefore proper to x-ray this topic in a less complex manner so that it can be well understood by those who are not mathematically grounded.   In view of this a further simplified approach in presenting this subject is necessary. A tutorial approach is used to simplify this subject for better understanding and how this feature is used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. To show how multipath interference rejection is achieved in CDMA systems simple equations and schematics were used. The discussions cover the method of code recognition at the receiver which serves as a technique for interference mitigation. The paper helps to understand the theory of code recognition in Spread Spectrum, and thus provides answer to the question on how does interference mitigation or rejection in spread spectrum works? 

Cite This Paper

Cosmas Kemdirim Agubor, Akinyinka Olukunle Akande, Reginald Opara, "Interference Mitigation in Wireless Communication – A Tutorial on Spread Spectrum Technology", International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT), Vol.11, No.5, pp. 26-34, 2021.DOI: 10.5815/ijwmt.2021.05.04


[1]Computing and Communications, (2008), 1036-1041. doi:10.1109/HPCC.2008.21.

[2]Abdelazeem R, Suliman, H,  Bilal K.H. & Elemam I. (2018), Review Paper on Cognitive Radio Networks, Journal  of Electrical & Electronic Systems, 7 (1), 1-3.  DOI: 10.4172/2332-0796.1000252

[3]Milstein L. (1998), Interference Rejection in Spread Spectrum Communications, Proc of the IEEE, 76(6), 657-671.

[4]Ketchum J. and Proakis J.G. (1982) Adaptive Algorithms for Estimating and Suppressing Narrowband Interference in PN Spread Spectrum Systems, IEEE Trans. on Commun., Com-30, 913-924.

[5]Giustiniano D., Schalch M., Liechti M and Lenders V. (2018), Interference Suppression in Bandwidth Hopping Spread Spectrum Communications, in Proc. of 11th ACM Conference in Wireless and Mobile Networks, 134-143. 

[6]Singh S. & Singh, H (2015), Review Paper on OFDM- Concepts and Applications, International Journal of Engineering Development and Research,  3(3),  1-4.

[7]Barakabitze A.A. & Ali, M.A. (2015), Behavior and Techniques for Improving Performance of OFDM  Systems for Wireless communications, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering,  4 (1), 237-245, DOI  10.17148/IJARCCE.2015.4152

[8]Getachew, H, Dereje, G., Molla M. & Fante, K.A. (2018),  Comparative Study of Modulation Techniques for 5G Networks, International Conference on Advances of  Science and Technology ICAST, 503-518.

[9]Rani P.N. & Rani, C.S.  (2016), The 5G modulation technique,  IEEE International Conference  on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), DOI: 10.1109/ICCIC.2016.7919714

[10]Dixon,  R.L. (1994), Spread Spectrum Systems with commercial applications, John Willey & Sons, 

[11]R.L.Pickholtz, D.L. Schiling and Melstein L.B. (1990),“Spread Spectrum goes commercial,” IEEE Spectrum 

[12]Ding, Q. (2010) A Story of Wireless Communication, Posts and Telecom   Press.

[13]J. Proakis J.  &  Salehi, M (2007), Digital Communications, McGraw-Hill Education, 

[14]Navpreet, K., Inderdeep, K.A. and Renu V.(201),  Analysis of Spread Spectrum Techniques in Cognitive Radio Networks, International Journal of Applied  Engineering Research, 11(8), 5641-5645. 

[15]Liechti M., Lenders V. and Guistiniano D, (2015) Jamming Mitigation by Randomizing Bandwidth Hopping, Proc. of the 11th Conference on Emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, 1-13.

[16] regulations_Semtech.pdf

[17]Zoran, S. & Burns, J. (2000),  Performance Comparison of  Frequency Flopping and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum  Systems in the 2.4 GHz range. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, The 11th IEEE  International Symposium  vol. 1, 

[18]Frezen, L.E. (2003), Principle of Electronic  Communication Systems, 2nd ed edition, 

[19]Glencoe:Mc  GrawHill.Dixon R.L. (1994), Spread Spectrum Systems with Commercial Applications, John Willey & Sons.

[20]Pickholtz R.L., Schiling D.L.& Melstein L.B. (1990),  Spread Spectrum goes commercial, IEEE Spectrum

[21]Ding Q. (2010). A Story of Wireless Communication, Posts and Telecom Press.