International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT)
ISSN: 2076-1449 (Print), ISSN: 2076-9539 (Online)
Published By: MECS Press
IJWMT Vol.6, No.5, Sep. 2016
A Low-Cost Noise Wave Correlator for Noise Parameters Extraction by Cold Noise Power Measurement
Full Text (PDF, 523KB), PP.10-21
Conventionally, the noise parameters of a Device under Test (DUT) which generally characterize the noise performance of the DUT, are obtained via the impedance tuner technique. The authors have previously presented a technique which eliminates the need for impedance tuner, and rather employs an 8-port network that enables the extraction of the noise correlation matrix of a given DUT and thus its noise parameters. In this paper, we present a further simplification of the 8-port network technique, which also eliminates the need for a conventional external noise source. Cold noise powers emanating from a DUT are measured via a 6-port network with the aid of matched termination. The measured noise powers provide sufficient information for determining the noise wave correlation matrix of a DUT, which are then converted into the conventional 2-port noise parameters. The proposed technique is simple, fast and is verified to give a good estimation of the noise parameters of selected DUTs.
Cite This Paper
Abdul-Rahman Ahmed, Kyung-Whan Yeom,"A Low-Cost Noise Wave Correlator for Noise Parameters Extraction by Cold Noise Power Measurement", International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies(IJWMT), Vol.6, No.5, pp.10-21, 2016.DOI: 10.5815/ijwmt.2016.05.02
D. Middleton, "Statistical-physical models of Electromagnetic Interference," IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 106–127, Aug. 1977.
H. Rothe and W. Dahlke, "Theory of noisy four poles," Proc. IRE, vol. 44, pp. 811-818; Jun. 1956.
R. Q. Lane, "The determination of device noise parameter," Proc. IEEE, vol. 57, pp. 1461-1462, Aug. 1969.
M. S. Gupta, "Determination of the noise parameters of a linear 2-port," Electron. Lett., vol. 6, no. 17, pp. 543-544, Aug. 1970.
M. Mitama and H. Katoh, "An improved computational method for noise parameter measurement," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 612-615, Jun. 1979.
G. Caruso and M. Sannino, "Computer-aided determination of microwave two-port noise parameters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 639-642, Sept. 1978.
G. I. Vasilescu, G. Alquie and M. Krim, "Exact computation of two-port noise parameters," Electron. Lett., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 292-293, Feb. 1989.
V. Adamian and A. Uhlir, "A novel procedure for receiver noise characterization," IEEE Trans. Instrum. and Meas., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 181-182, Jun. 1973.
J. Lange, "Noise characterization of linear two ports in terms of invariant parameters," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 37-40, Jun. 1967.
J. M. O'Callaghan and J. P. Mondal, "A vector approach for noise parameter fitting and selection of source admittances," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1376-1382, Aug. 1991.
A. C. Davidson, B. W. Bake, and E, Strid, "Accuracy Improvements in microwave noise parameter measurements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1973-1989, Dec. 1989.
E. W. Strid, "Measurement of losses in noise-matching networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 29, pp. 247-252, Mar. 1981.
R. Meys, "A wave approach to the noise properties of linear microwave devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 34-37, Jan. 1978.
P. Penfield, "Wave representation of amplifier noise," IRE Trans. Circuit Theory, vol. 9, pp. 84-86, Mar. 1962.
S. W. Wedge and D. B. Rutledge, "Wave Techniques for Noise Modeling and Measurement," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2004-2012, Nov. 1992.
R. P. Hecken, "Analysis of linear noisy two-ports using scattering waves,'' IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 997-1004, Oct. 1981.
N. G. Kanaglekar, R. E. McIntosh, and W. E. Bryant, "Wave analysis of noise in interconnected multiport networks," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 112-115, Feb. 1987.
J. A. Dobrowolski, "Noise power sensitivities and noise figure minimization of two-ports with any internal topology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 136-140, Jan. 1991.
S. Withington. "Scattered noise waves in microwave and mm-wave networks," Microwave J., vol. 32, pp. 169-178, Jun. 1989.
S. W. Wedge, Computer-aided design of low noise microwave circuits, Ph.D. dissertation, California Institute of Technology, 1991.
D. B. Rutledge and S. W. Wedge, Microwave six-port noise parameter analyzer: US patent, US 5170126 A,1992
J. A. Dobrowolski. "A CAD-oriented method for noise figure computation of two-ports with any internal topology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 15-20, Jan. 1989.
A. Lázaro, M. C. Maya, and L. Pradell, "Measurement of on-wafer transistor noise parameters without a tuner using unrestricted noise sources," Microwave J., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 20-46, Mar. 2002.
G. Dambrine, H. Cappy, F. Danneville, and A. Cappy, "A new method for on wafer noise measurement," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 375-381, Mar. 1993.
F. Giannini, E. Bourdel, "A New Method to Extract Noise Parameters Based on a Frequency- and Time-Domain Analysis of Noise Power Measurements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 261-267, Feb. 2008.
T. Werling, E. Bourdel, D. Pasquet, and A. Boudiaf, "Determination of wave noise sources using spectral parametric modeling," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2461–2467, Dec. 1997.
G. F. Engen, and C. A. Hoer, "Thru-Reflect-Line: An Improved Technique for Calibrating the Dual Six-Port Automatic Network Analyzer," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 987–992, Dec. 1979.
A. -R. Ahmed, K. -W. Yeom, "An extraction of two-port noise parameters from measured noise powers using an extended six-port network", IEEE Trans on Microw. Theory and Tech., vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 2423-2434, Oct. 2014.
H. Hillbrand, P. H. Russer, "An efficient Method for Computer Aided Noise Analysis of Linear Amplifier Networks," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 235-238, Apr. 1976.
H. Bosma, "On the Theory of Linear Noisy Systems," Philips Res. Repts. Suppl., no. 10, 1967.