International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)
ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)
Published By: MECS Press
IJIGSP Vol.4, No.2, Mar. 2012
Chaotic Behavior of Heart Rate Signals during Chi and Kundalini Meditation
Full Text (PDF, 233KB), PP.23-29
Nonlinear dynamics has been introduced to the analysis of biological data and increasingly recognized to be functionally relevant. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare the contribution of nonlinear and chaotic dynamics of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (i) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (ii) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Poincare plots, Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents of heart rate variability signals were analyzed. In this study, we examined the different behavior of heart rate signals during two specific meditation techniques. The results show that heart rate signals became more periodic and their chaotic behavior was decreased in both techniques of meditation. Therefore, nonlinear chaotic indices may serve as a quantitative measure for psychophysiological states such as meditation. In addition, different forms of meditation appear to differentially alter specific components of heart rate signals.
Cite This Paper
Atefeh Goshvarpour,Ateke Goshvarpour,"Chaotic Behavior of Heart Rate Signals during Chi and Kundalini Meditation", IJIGSP, vol.4, no.2, pp.23-29, 2012.
Brefczynski-Lewis J.A., Lutz A., Schaefer H.S., Levinson D.B., Davidson R.J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners, PNAS, 104, 11483-11488.
Jevning R., Wallace R.K., Beidebach M. (1992). The physiology of meditation – a review – a wakeful hypometabolic integrated response, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 16, 415–424.
Cohen K.S. (1999). The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing. Random House of Canada. ISBN 0345421094.
Yang J.M. (1987). Chi Kung: health & martial arts. Yang's Martial Arts Association. ISBN 0940871009.
Frantzis B.K. (2008). The Chi Revolution: Harnessing the Healing Power of Your Life Force. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1583941932.
Maheshwarananda P.S. The hidden power in humans, Ibera Verlag, 47-48. ISBN 3-85052-197-4.
Radha S.S. (2004). Kundalini Yoga for the West, timeless, 13-15. ISBN 1932018042.
Acharya U.R., Joseph K.P., Kannathal N., Lim C.M., Suri J.S. (2006). Heart rate variability: a review. Med Bio Eng Comput, 44, 1031–1051.
Peng C-K., Mietus J. E., Liu Y., Khalsa G., Douglas P.S., Benson H., Goldberger A.L. (1999). Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques, Int J Cardiol, 70, 101-107.
Hoshiyama M., Hoshiyama A. (2008). Heart rate variability associated with experienced Zen meditation, Computers in Cardiology, 35, 569–572.
Phongsuphap S., Pongsupap Y., Chandanamattha P. (2008). Changes in heart rate variability during concentration meditation, Int J Cardiol, 130, 481–484.
Takahashi T., Murata T., Hamada T., Omori M., Kosaka H., Kikuchi M., Yoshida H., Wada Y. (2005). Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits, Int J Psychophysiol, 55, 199-207.
Rosenstien M., Colins J.J., De Luca C.J. (1993). A practical method for calculating largest Lyapunov exponents from small data sets, Physica D, 65, 117–134.
Goshvarpour A., Goshvarpour A., Rahati S. (2011). Analysis of lagged Poincare plots in heart rate signals during meditation, Digital Signal Processing, 21, 208-214.
Kobayashi M., Musha T. (1982). 1/f fluctuation of heart beat period, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 29, 456–457.
Pincus S.M. (1991). Approximate entropy as a measure of system complexity, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 88, 2297–2301.
Peng C-K., Havlin S., Hausdorf J.M., Mietus J.E., Stanley H.E., Goldberger A.L. (1996). Fractal mechanisms and heart rate dynamics, J Electrocardiol, 28, 59–64.
Goshvarpour A., Rahati S., Saadatian V. (2010). Estimating depth of meditation using electroencephalogram and heart rate signals, [MSc. Thesis] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Iran. [Persian]
Goshvarpour A., Rahati S., Saadatian V. (2010). Analysis of electroencephalogram and heart rate signals during meditation using Hopfield neural network, [MSc. Thesis] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Iran. [Persian]
Karmakar C., Khandoker A., Gubbi J., Palaniswami M. (2009). Complex correlation measure: a novel descriptor for Poincare plot, Biomed Eng, 8, 17.
Kamen P.W., Krum H., Tonkin A.M., (1996). Poincare plot of heart rate variability allows quantitative display of parasympathetic nervous activity, Clin Sci, 91, 201–208.
Haykin S., Li X.B. (1995). Detection of signals in chaos, Proc IEEE, 83(1), 95–122.
Abarbanel H.D.I., Brown R., Kennel M.B. (1991). Lyapunov exponents in chaotic systems: their importance and their evaluation using observed data, Int J Mod Phys B, 5(9),1347–1375.
Hurst H.E., Black R.P., Simaika Y.M. (1965). Long-term storage: an experimental study Constable, London.
Storella R.J., Shi Y., O'Connor D.M., Pharo G.H., Abrams J., Levitt T.J. (1999). Relief of chronic pain may be accompanied by an increase in a measure of heart rate variability, IARS, 89, 448-450.
Vandeput S., Verheyden B., Aubert A.E., Huffel S.V. (2008). Nonlinear heart rate variability in a healthy population: influence of age, Computers in Cardiology, 35, 53-56.
Xiao D., He W., Yang H., Yu C. (2006). Study on correlative dimension of HRV signals and its clinicalapplications, IEEE- EMBC, 17, 4522-4525.
Cysarz D. (2005). Cardiorespiratory synchronization during Zen meditation, Eur J Appl Physiol, 95, 88-95.
Lehrer P., Sasaki Y., Saito Y. (1991). Zazen and cardiac variability, Psychosom Med, 61, 812-821.